[375], Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. Libya; Economy of Libya; Portal:Libya; Oil reserves in Libya; Energy in Libya; Libyan Civil War (2014–present) Mining industry of Libya; Gebruik op es.wikipedia.org Guerra civil libia (2014-actualidad) Gebruik op fa.wikipedia.org میدان‌های نفتی لیبی; Gebruik op fr.wikipedia.org Libye; Première guerre civile … "[183], He called himself a "warrior", and vowed to fight on and die a "martyr", and urged his supporters to leave their homes and attack rebels "in their lairs". [316] Concerns were raised over the danger of Gaddafi mounting an insurgency against the new authorities. [141] 38 people were injured, including 10 security personnel. [183] The exact same day, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10,000 had been killed. [215][217], Reuters had reported in May 2011 that rebels from eastern Libya – where Ghaddafi's rule had ended in early February – were negotiating with Qatari banks to "facilitate international money transfers in rebel-held areas, a move aimed at recapitalising banks and boosting the economy through trade. Dozens of them were arrested. [225], Reports from Ghana state that the men who went to Libya were offered as much as €1950 ($2,500) per day. Responding to demands that he step down, he stated that he could not step down, as he held a purely symbolic position like Queen Elizabeth, and that the people were in power. [62] Human Rights Watch has countered that while many foreign migrants were erroneously accused of fighting with Gaddafi, there were also genuine mercenaries from several nations who participated in the conflict. [321], On 1 September, when Gaddafi lost his capital Tripoli but continued fighting, the Russian government under president Dmitry Medvedev and prime minister Vladimir Putin recognized the Libyan NTC as the only legal regime in Libya. [348][349] Some academics believe that this intervention transformed the legal nature of the conflict as a whole, with the result that even the rebels should have been considered as one of the parties to an overarching international conflict spanning the whole Libyan territory. Estimated total casualties from all sides, including civilians: This page was last changed on 6 April 2020, at 21:16. [226] One group of mercenaries from Niger, who had been allegedly recruited from the streets with promises of money, included a soldier of just 13 years old. "[209] A Libyan official reported to Libyan television that security forces arrested Tunisians and Egyptians that were "trained to sow chaos. [177][178] Gaddafi later also stated that the revolt against his rule was the result of a colonialist plot by foreign states, particularly blaming France, the US and the UK, to control oil and enslave the Libyan people. [317], By mid-October 2011, much of the city of Sirte had been taken by NTC forces, although fierce fighting continued around the city center, where many pro-Gaddafi fighters were encamped. Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a "bloodless coup. [279] On 3 March, it was reported that another member of the family, Prince Zouber al-Senussi, had fled Libya with his family and was seeking asylum in Totebo, Sweden. Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occ… [200], According to Libyan state television, the rebels used human shields in Misrata. [219] Gaddafi's former Chief of Protocol Nouri Al Mesmari said in an interview with the Al Jazeera that Nigerien, Malian, Chadian and Kenyan mercenaries were among foreign soldiers helping fight the uprising on behalf of Gaddafi. Some army personnel also joined the protesters; they then seized the local radio station. By 22 August, rebel fighters had gained entrance into Tripoli and occupied Green Square, which was promptly renamed Martyrs' Square in memory of those who had died fighting in the civil war. [383], Many states and supranational bodies condemned Gaddafi's government over disputed allegations of air attacks on civilian targets within the country. Initially, Qatari Prime Minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim al-Thani declared that the country was supporting the rebels by sending "defensive weaponry" only. [189] In multiple incidents, Gaddafi's forces were documented using ambulances in their attacks. [286][383] The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in its part of Libya if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators. According to Western diplomats, this move appeared to be aimed at putting pressure on the government to speed up reforms. [164] On 29 March, the political and international affairs committee of the Council presented its eight-point plan for Libya in The Guardian newspaper, stating they would hold free and fair elections and draft a national constitution. The Gaddafi government then announced a ceasefire, but fighting and bombing continued. The Khamis Brigade, run by Gaddafi's son Khamis, rolled in and nearly destroyed the entire city. La guerre de Libye (2011) publié le 3 septembre 2014. [154], Some groups, such as a rock band from Benghazi called the "Guys Underground", used metaphors to cloak the censure of the authorities. [118], Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973, and in 1974, Gaddafi asserted that anyone guilty of founding a political party would be executed. [citation needed] On 10 March, the president of the ICRC Jakob Kellenberger warned of the increase in the intensity of fighting and in the number of casualties arriving at hospitals in Ajdabiya and Misrata. and rebels began forming their own government. [102] According to US officials, Gaddafi amassed a vast personal fortune during his 42-year leadership. The Libyan Government's ambassador to India Ali al-Essawi said that the defections of military units had indeed led to such a decision. [354][355], By the end of February 2011, supplies of medicine, fuel and food were dangerously low in Libya's urban centres. [350], Finally, it remains unsettled whether or not the rebels' overthrow of Gaddafi's government following the fall of Tripoli in August 2011 changed the nature of the conflict again. [193], In the eastern city of Bayda, anti-government forces hanged two policemen who were involved in trying to disperse demonstrations. [237] Gaddafi shut down all Internet communications in Libya, and arrested Libyans who had given phone interviews to the media. But some also fought as pro-Gaddafi mercenaries, and many migrant workers [-] fled ahead of the rebels, fearing they would be mistaken for mercenaries. "[222], In Mali, members of the Tuareg tribe confirmed that a large number of men, about 5,000, from the tribe went to Libya in late February. [142][143] The novelist Idris Al-Mesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview with Al Jazeera about the police reaction to protests. [290], By 11 March, the Libyan Air Force was running out of quality jet fuel, and the government tried to bribe Maltese Air Force officials in order to buy fuel. Khamis Gaddafi † Some have refused to disarm, and cooperation with the NTC has been strained, leading to demonstrations against militias and government action to disband such groups or integrate them into the Libyan military. ", "Chinese evacuation from Libya via Malta ends", "Libya: Muammar Gaddafi Subject to ICC Arrest Warrant", "Interpol issues arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi", Libya: Examination of intervention and collapse and the UK's future policy options, "MPs deliver damning verdict on Cameron's Libya intervention", Libya: Libya attacks criticised by Arab League, China, Russia and India, "Oil jumps after Western attacks on Libya", "African roles in the Libyan conflict of 2011", Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Fist Crushing a U.S. [173][174] Gaddafi's claims are supported by a 2008 secret cable from the US embassy in Tripoli to the US State Department, and an analysis by the Combating Terrorism Center at the US Military Academy at West Point of a set of documents called the Sinjar Records, purporting to show a statistical study of the al-Qaeda personnel records. Il a été tué d’une balle dans la tête et son An injured seven-year-old in a hospital was the victim of a car crash, according to a note passed on surreptitiously by a nurse. [272] He dismissed talk of a civil war saying "The Libyan people and the tribes have proven they are united". Middle East/North Africa Report N°107", "Libye: de nouveaux morts lors d'une opération des forces libyennes", "Libyan demonstrators Say They'll Soldier on Despite Violent Crackdown", "Hip-hop is a soundtrack to the North African revolt", "Ibn Thabit: The Beat Behind Libya's Revolution", "In Eastern Libya, Defectors and Volunteers Build Rebel Army", "Pizza delivery service caters to Libya's front-line rebels", "World raises pressure on Libya, battles for key towns", "Why Won't You Help, Libyan Rebels Ask West", "As Tide Turns, Rebels' Dream Of 'Free Libya' Dims", "Libya After Qaddafi: Lessons and Implications for the Future", "The Most Troubling Reports About the Libyan Rebels", "Islamist Militia 'Shot Libya Rebel Abdel Fattah Younes, "Upbeat Gaddafi Fires Trademark Blast at West and Qaeda", "Libya: al-Qaeda Among Libya Rebels, Nato Chief Fears", "Halt To Rebel Advance Creates Libyan Divide", "Libya rebels: Gaddafi could be right about al-Qaeda", "WikiLeaks: Guantanamo detainee is now Libyan rebel leader", "Gaddafi Says Protesters Are on Hallucinogenic Drugs", "Yemen Blames Israel and US; Qaddafi Accuses US – and al-Qaeda", "Three Scenarios for End of Gaddafi: Psychologist", "Gaddafi Warns of al-Qaeda Spread 'Up to Israel, "Gaddafi addresses Benghazi residents – Africa", "The Tyrant of Belarus: Gaddafi's Friend Far, Far to the North? Watch Queue Queue Journalists and human rights researchers made daily phone calls to hundreds of civilians in government held territory. The protests were triggered by the arrests of government critics, including a lawyer representing the families of an estimated 1,200 prisoners who had been killed at Tripoli’s Abu Salim prison in 1996. However, some of Gaddafi's soldiers began joining the rebels in protest. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi sent troops and tanks to break up the rebellion. A campaign in Serbia has organized people to spread pro-Gaddafi messages on the Internet. War wounded were estimated as at least 50,000, of which about 20,000 were serious injuries, but this estimate was expected to rise. [102][104], Gaddafi said that he planned to combat corruption in the state by proposing reforms where oil profits are handed out directly to the country's five million people[105] rather than to government bodies, stating that "as long as money is administered by a government body, there would be theft and corruption. Why? The New York Times reported rebel leaders as saying they believed the only areas still under Gaddafi's control, other than the immediate neighbourhood of Bab al-Azizia, were al-Hadhba and Abu Salim, the latter including the Rixos Hotel where a group of foreign journalists had been trapped for days. [243] Several residents reported that cellphone service was down, and even landline phone service was sporadic. "[114], In 1988, Gaddafi criticized the "excesses" he blamed on the Revolutionary Councils, stating that "they deviated, harmed, tortured" and that "the true revolutionary does not practise repression. With Eric Elmosnino, Mathilde Seigner, Fred Testot, Alain Chabat. NATO/Libya : Allies Stress Their Unity of Objective, but Fail to Resolve all Their Differences In: EUROPE DIPLOMACY & DEFENCE, no. Nightmare. [362] By 10 July, over 150,000 migrants were evacuated. Updated 3:58 p.m. ", "Violent Repression of Protests Rocks Libya, Bahrain, Yemen", "Bahrain in Crisis and Middle East Protests – Live Blog", "Libyans Protest over Delayed Subsidized Housing Units", "Libya Protest over Housing Enters Its Third Day", "Muammar Gaddafi Condemns Tunisia Uprising", "Libyan Writer Detained Following Protest Call", "Arab Spring domino effect: Gaddafi is gone, will Syria's al-Assad be the next Arab autocrat toppled? [377] By 1 March, officials from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees had confirmed allegations of discrimination against sub-Saharan Africans who were held in dangerous conditions in the no-man's-land between Tunisia and Libya. Journalists were not allowed to go anywhere, or talk to anyone, without authorization from Gaddafi's officials who always followed them. [109][110], In 2009 and 2011, the Freedom of the Press Index rated Libya the most-censored state in the Middle East and North Africa. [215] Dagher, Levinson, and Coker also wrote that some government officials in Tripoli claimed that Ghaddafi's fall did not cause those shipments to be suspended. [82], According to several Western media sources, Gaddafi feared a military coup against his government and deliberately kept Libya's military relatively weak. The Rebels regained a few cities. [277] On 21 February, he made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising. It began in the middle of February 2011. The history of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi spanned 42 years from 1969 to 2011. [255] The Jamahiriya News Agency reported on a speech delivered by Leader Gaddafi to Misrata tribes in Tripoli, in which he said that the rebels "used children and women as human shields. [195], On 19 February, several days after the conflict began, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi announced the creation of a commission of inquiry into the violence, chaired by a Libyan judge, as reported on state television. Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. The Rebels gained power when NATO and other countries began bombarding Gaddafi's forces with attack aircraft. In the 1980s, a large portion of it was spent on arms purchases, and on sponsoring militant groups and independence movements around the world. [247] Gaddafi's soldiers held four New York Times journalists – Lynsey Addario, Anthony Shadid, Stephen Farrell and Tyler Hicks – in captivity for a week. [54] However, there was no independent verification of the Health Minister's statement and, one month later, the NTC reduced the estimated number of killed to 25,000. 03/19/2019 12:04 AM EDT. ", "Kenya: 'Dogs of War' Fighting for Gaddafi", "afrol News – Libya, Chad row over "mercenaries, "Gaddafi Hiring Tuareg Warriors as Mercenaries in Libya: Reports", "Gaddafi Recruits 800 Tuareg Mercenaries", "The Irish teen who tracks and kills Gaddafi's snipers", "European mercenaries fighting for Gaddafi, expert says", "Text Message from a House in Libya: We Are Being Slaughtered Here", "Defying Gadhafi's Crackdown; Analysis with Dr. Drew Pinsky; Interview with Kevin Smith", "Gaddafi's Fleeing Mercenaries Describe the Collapse of the Regime", "Benghazi Doctor: Gadhafi Using Foreign Mercenaries to Quell Protests", "Africans say Libyan troops try to make them fight", "World Report 2012: Rights Trends in World Report 2012: Libya", "Comment j'ai mis 8 millions de libyens sur écoute", "Desperate Gaddafi Bombs Protesters, Blocks Internet", "Libya: Governments Should Demand End to Unlawful Killings", "The Editors: The Difficulty of Reporting from Inside Libya", "Libya Fights Protesters with Snipers, Grenades", "Libya Witness: 'It's Time for Revolt. [134][135][136][137][138] A social media website declared an alternative government, one that would be an interim national council, was the first to compete with Muammar Gaddafi's political authority. [291], The Royal Canadian Navy frigate HMCS Charlottetown was deployed to the Mediterranean off the coast of Libya on 2 March 2011, but did not take immediate action once arrived. Al-quaeda started bombing. This video is unavailable. Protesters also clashed with police in Bayda and attacked government offices. [100], Several foreign governments and analysts have stated that a large share of the business enterprise was controlled by Gaddafi, his family, and the government. Fighter Plane Sculpture, International reactions to military intervention, International reactions to Gaddafi's death, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 65/265, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2009, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2016, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Libyan_Civil_War&oldid=995096112, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with failed verification from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 05:38. Foreign aid workers were also claiming to be prohibited from officially talking about the allegations. The rebels won the battle and took control of the city. Watch Queue Queue. On February 16, 2011 Libyan protesters clashed with police in an anti-government demonstration inspired by the uprisings that brought down the rulers of Libya's neighbors, Egypt and Tunisia. Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil and Interior Minister Major General Abdul Fatah Younis both defected to the opposition. [307], In June 2011, Muammar Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam announced that they were willing to hold elections and that Gaddafi would step aside if he lost. [196] In Tripoli, "death squads" of mercenaries and Revolutionary Committees members reportedly patrolled the streets and shot people who tried to take the dead off the streets or gather in groups. "[216], Over ten ammunition shipments sponsored by Qatar were allegedly delivered to anti-Gaddhafi forces via Sudan. Armed people are everywhere. "[215], The three columnists reported anonymous sources described as "people familiar with the shipments" who confirmed that 18 weapons shipments were delivered to rebel forces between spring and summer 2011, mostly independently from the mediation of the National Transitional Council. [62], On 8 September, Naji Barakat, the Health Minister of the National Transitional Council, stated that about half of an estimated 30,000 dead were believed to have been pro-Gaddafi fighters. Muammar Gaddafi evaded capture until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed in Sirte. [130], The protests would lead to an uprising and civil war, as part of the wider Arab Spring,[131][132] which had already resulted in the ousting of long-term presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt. Howard, P. N., & Hussain, M. M. (2011). Saif al-Arab Gaddafi †[22] Muammar: You have never served the people Those who surrender their weapons and would come without their arms, we would forgive them, and would have amnesty for those who put down their weapons. Gaddafi acknowledged that the scheme, which promised up to 30,000 Libyan dinars ($23,000) annually to about a million of Libya's poorest, may "cause chaos before it brought about prosperity," but said "do not be afraid to experiment with a new form of government" and that "this plan is to offer a better future for Libya's children". [207][208], In a questionnaire 259 refugee women reported that they had been raped by Gaddafi's soldiers, however the accounts of these women could not be independently verified as the psychologist who conducted the questionnaire said that "she had lost contact with them". [187] It was also reported that security forces and foreign mercenaries repeatedly used firearms, including assault rifles and machine guns, as well as knives against protesters. [77][78] While he was popularly seen as a demagogue in the West, Gaddafi always portrayed himself as a statesman-philosopher. Confess. NATO and the rebels rejected the offer, and NATO soon resumed bombardment of Tripoli. With Valérie Donzelli, Jérémie Elkaïm, César Desseix, Gabriel Elkaïm. According to NBC News Chief Foreign Correspondent, Richard Engel, who entered Libya and had reached the city of Tobruk on 22 February 2011 was quoted as saying, "the protest movement is no longer a protest movement, it's a war. This was succeeded by race riots, which were squashed by the police and pro-Gaddafi loyalists. De resolutie zorgde er ook … The victim's body showed signs of torture. [295][296][297], From the beginning of the intervention, the coalition of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Qatar, Spain, UK and US[298][299][300][301][302] expanded to 17 states. The big stories of 2011", "Libyan Opposition Declares 'Day of Rage' Against Gaddafi", "Anti-Government Protesters Killed in Libyan Clash", "Military Helicopters Reportedly Fire on Protesters in Libya", "POPULAR PROTEST IN NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (V): MAKING SENSE OF LIBYA. [331] Abdul Jalil, the chairman of NTC, warned Libyans that the country could descend into another civil war if they resort to force to settle their differences. "[119] That same year, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya issued the Great Green Document on Human Rights, in which Article 5 established laws that allowed greater freedom of expression. [313] By late afternoon the journalists trapped at the Rixos Hotel had been released while heavy fighting continued in the Abu Salim region close to Bab al-Azizia and elsewhere. [233], In June 2011, Amnesty International said it found no evidence of foreign mercenaries being used, saying the black Africans said to be "mercenaries" were in fact "sub-Saharan migrants working in Libya," and described the use of mercenaries as a "myth" that "inflamed public opinion" and led to lynchings and executions of black Africans by rebel forces. [154], Many opposition participants called for a return to the 1952 constitution and a transition to multi-party democracy. In general, the normative framework applicable to international conflicts is broader and more detailed than the sum of rules that apply in conflicts not of an international character. [97], Some of the worst economic conditions were in the eastern parts of the state, once a breadbasket of the ancient world, where Gaddafi extracted oil. [276], A rival claimant to the throne, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, announced in an interview with Adnkronos that he was ready to return to Libya and "assume leadership" once change had been initiated. [248] Libyan citizen journalist Mohammed Nabbous was shot in the head by Gaddafi's soldiers soon after exposing the Gaddafi government's false reports related to the cease-fire declaration. "[372], It was also reported that some African women had said rebels were raping them in refugee camps, with additional reports of forced labour. Because they were against them. Suleiman Mahmoud[20] Libya Revolt of 2011, popular uprising in Libya inspired by the Arab Spring revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia. [290], It is generally accepted that the military intervention by a multi-state coalition acting under the Security Council mandate since 19 March 2011 occasioned an international armed conflict between Libya and the intervening states. [158] In Tobruk, volunteers turned a former headquarters of the government into a centre for helping protesters. The rebels also won in Benghazi and other places. Libya had welfare systems allowing access to free education, free healthcare, and financial assistance for housing, and the Great Manmade River was built to allow free access to fresh water across large parts of the country. [306] On 9 June 2011, some negotiators from NTC arrived in Beijing to have negotiations with the Chinese government. [223][224] Gaddafi has used Malian Tuaregs in his political projects before, sending them to fight in places like Chad, Sudan and Lebanon and recently they have fought against the Niger government, a war which Gaddafi has reportedly sponsored. ", "Libya grants immunity to 'revolutionaries, "Special report: We all thought Libya had moved on – it has, but into lawlessness and ruin", "Death Toll in Libyan Popular Uprising at 10,000", "Al Jazeera Live Blog Libya – February 22", "At Least 3,000 Dead in Libya: Rights Group", "Uppsala conflict data program, Libya, Libya: government (entire conflict), viewed April 2013", "Uppsala conflict data program, Libya, 2011, viewed April 2013", "Transformations of Conflict Status in Libya", "Libya: ICRC Launches Emergency Appeal as Humanitarian Situation Deteriorates", "UN Says To Deliver First Food Aid in Libya Tuesday", UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, "IHH Sends Humanitarian Aid Ship to Libya", "Rockets Bombard Misrata, Rebels Say Eight Killed", "Live Update: Thousands Flee Across Libya–Tunisia Border", "Friend or Foe? Teachers and engineers set up a committee to collect weapons. [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. "[256], In response to the use of force against protesters, a number of senior Libyan public officials either renounced the Gaddafi government or resigned from their positions. The government is ready to dialogue with them." According to Michel Koutouzis, who does research on security issues for the EU institutions, the UN and the French government, "In Libyan society, there is a taboo against killing people from your own tribal group. [220] Chadian sources repudiated allegations that mercenaries from Chad were involved in the fighting in Libya. [246] A journalist working for The Guardian and another Brazilian journalist have been detained. [179][180][181] He said that if the rebels laid down their arms, they would not be harmed. The Libyan Army consisted of about 50,000 personnel. [115] With the establishment of the Jamahiriya ("state of the masses") system in 1977, he established the Revolutionary Committees as conduits for raising political consciousness, with the aim of direct political participation by all Libyans rather than a traditional party-based representative system. "[221], According to African Union chairman Jean Ping, the "NTC seems to confuse black people with mercenaries". Journalists who did not report events the way Gaddafi's officials instructed faced problems and sudden deportations. [382] The Tuareg and Magarha tribes announced their support of the protesters. "[76] He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951, considering it a neocolonial document. Despite the defeat of Gaddafi's loyalists, the capture of his last cities and Gaddafi's death, Saif al-Islam, Gaddafi's son and successor, remained hiding in the southern region of Libya until his capture in mid-November. [83][84][85], By the end of Gaddafi's 42-year rule, Libya's population had a per capita income of $14,000, though a third was estimated to still live below the national poverty line. We Are Free, "Qaddafi's Grip Falters as His Forces Take On Protesters", "Libyan rebels let Russian journalists go — RT News", "Rebel Leaders in Libya's Misrata Curb Press Freedoms as Casualties Mount", "BBC Crew Beaten and Given Mock Executions", "Killing of Al Jazeera Journalist Condemned", Freed journalists await word on missing driver, reflect on Libyan captivity, "Mohammad Nabbous, face of citizen journalism in Libya, is killed", "Ultranationalist Serbs Organize Pro-Qaddafi Campaign", "Reporting from Libya – Close your window", "No freedom for foreign press at Tripoli's Rixos hotel", "Muammar Gaddafi Using Civilians To Protect Key Sites", "Libyan Rebels Battle Qaddafi's Forces for Control of Cities", "Text of Leader's Speech to Misrata Tribes in Tripoli and its Suburbs 4th Addendum", "Libya's Prosecutor General Says Joins Opposition", "Libya's Ambassadors to India, Arab League Resign in Protest Against Government", "Libyan Ambassador to Belgium, Head of Mission to EU Resigns", "Libyan Ambassador Denounces Gadhafi At U.N", "Libyan embassy cuts ties with Gaddafi, as Australia considers evacuations", "Libyan Ambassadors in France Back Revolt", "Libyan Ambassador to Portugal Quits in Protest", "Ambassaden hissar Libyens frihetsflagga", "Libya's US Ambassador Resigns from 'Dictatorship, In a New Libya, Ex-Loyalists Race to Shed Ties to Qaddafi, "Two Libyan Fighter Pilots Defect, Fly to Malta", "Qaddafi's Hold on Libya Weakens in Protest Wave", "Libya's Crown Prince Says Protesters Will Defy 'Brutal Forces, "Libya's 'Exiled Prince' Urges World Action", "Libyan Crown Prince Urges No-Fly Zone, Air Strikes", "Libyan Crown Prince Speaks to EU Parliament", "Libia, principe Idris: "Gheddafi assecondi popolo o il Paese finirà in fiamme, "Who Is Moammer Gadhafi?