1771 (dated) 13 x 17.5 in (33.02 x 44.45 cm) 1 : 930000. [12] But in order to spare them possible confrontations with relatives in France but also to avoid any desertion from the Alsatian soldiers to the French army,[note 5][13] German Army draftees from Alsace-Lorraine were sent mainly to the Eastern front, or the Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). A network of rivers and canals covering the regions of Alsace and Lorraine provide a link with neighbouring countries such as Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. This included its constitution and state assembly, its own flag, and the Elsässisches Fahnenlied ("Alsatian Flag Song") as its anthem. The Vallée de Munster, northeast of the park, is one of the region's loveliest valleys. Jean-Noël Grandhomme, « Le retour de l'Alsace-Lorraine », Eberhard Jäckel, « L'annexion déguisée », dans, Union of Protestant Churches of Alsace and Lorraine, Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, Arrondissement of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins, French occupation of large areas of Germany, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Independent Regional Party for Alsace-Lorraine, Les députés "protestataires" d'Alsace-Lorraine, "Tabellarische Geschichte Elsaß-Lothringens / Französische Besatzung (1918-1940)", "To Protect, Defend and inform: The Evacuation of the German-French Border Region During the Second World War", "Evacuation, Phony War and Collapse, May-June 1940", "The Deportation of People From Alsace and Moselle", "Verwaltungsgeschichte Elsaß-Lothringen 1871–1919", http://www.geocities.com/bfel/geschichte5b.html, https://web.archive.org/web/20090730200508/http://geocities.com/CapitolHill/Rotunda/2209/Alsace_Lorraine.html, France, Germany and the Struggle for the War-making Natural Resources of the Rhineland, Annuary of Cultur and Artists from Elsass-Lothringen, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), Protestant Church of the Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alsace-Lorraine&oldid=991222333, States and territories established in 1871, States and territories disestablished in 1918, Articles containing Alemannic German-language text, Articles containing Luxembourgish-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2015, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October 2020, Articles needing additional references from March 2017, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, +0.58% population growth per year during 1875–1910. Alsace-Lorraine belonged to France during the seventeenth and Omissions? Alsace-Lorraine, German Elsass-Lothringen, area comprising the present French départements of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin, and Moselle. INDECHIRABLE, la carte régionale Alsace, Lorraine 2021 au 1/200 000 ème (1cm = 2km) vous accompagne dans tous vos déplacements. What is now known as Alsace was progressively conquered by France under Louis XIII and Louis XIV in the 17th century, while Lorraine was incorporated from the 16th century under Henry II to the 18th century under Louis XV[1] (in the case of the Three Bishoprics, as early as 1552). However, the Roman Catholic dioceses of Metz and of Strasbourg became exempt jurisdictions. It is unnecessary to go into the unholy consequences." Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. Transport gratuit peste 150 de lei. Refugee and resident Jews were also expelled. Trouvez l’adresse qui vous intéresse sur la carte Lorraine ou préparez un calcul d'itinéraire à partir de ou vers Lorraine, trouvez tous les sites touristiques et les restaurants du Guide Michelin dans ou à proximité de Lorraine. Beginning in October 1942, young Alsatian and Lorrainian men were inducted into the German armed forces. All the mentioned religious bodies retained the status as établissements publics de culte (public bodies of Religion). [21] Through a series of laws which individually seemed minor, Berlin took de facto control of Alsace-Lorraine, and Alsatians-Lorrainians could be drafted into the German Army. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Thus, by annexing Alsace-Lorraine, Berlin was able to avoid complications with Baden and Bavaria on such matters as new fortifications. The new border between France and Germany mainly followed the geolinguistic divide between French and German dialects, except in a few valleys of the Alsatian side of the Vosges mountains, the city of Metz and its region and in the area of Château-Salins (formerly in the Meurthe département), which were annexed by Germany although most people there spoke French. For centuries, Alsace-Lorraine was a major topic of conflict between France and Germany, as both countries claimed the region as its own. As a consequence, Alsace-Lorraine developed a strong “home rule” movement in the 1920s and unsuccessfully sought autonomy within the French Republic. Linguistically, the German dialect known as Alsatian remains the lingua franca of the region, and both French and German are taught in the schools. Today, these territories enjoy laws that are somewhat different from the rest of France – these specific provisions are known as the local law. in Róisín Healy and Enrico Dal Lago, eds. Read more. Since 2016, the historical territory is now part of the French administrative region of Grand Est. The Lorraine section was in the upper Moselle valley to the north of the Vosges. On 1 September 1939 the population of Alsace and Moselle living in the Franco-German border region were evacuated. In French foreign policy, the demand for the return of Alsace and Lorraine faded in importance after 1880 with the decline of the monarchist element. One of the best family sites in the region is the Ecomuseum in Ungersheim between Colmar and Mulhouse (www.ecomusee-alsace.fr; tel. Service de la carte géologique d'Alsace et de Lorraine. ), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 23:10. Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger's The Exodus (1872), depicting Alsatians leaving newly annexed Alsace for France. The German administration was tolerant of the use of the French language (in sharp contrast to the use of the Polish language in the Province of Posen), and French was permitted as an official language and school language in those areas where it was spoken by a majority. Painting by Albert Bettannier, a native of Metz who fled to Paris after the annexation of his hometown, Map of Alsace-Lorraine and around, with German placenames, published in 1887, In 1871, the newly created German Empire's demand for Alsace from France after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War was not simply a punitive measure. Carte de l'Alsace Lorraine en 1914 - Carte de l'Alsace Lorraine sous l'empire allemand Chercher une commune, un code postal, un lieu... J'aime CartesFrance.fr ! Împachetare cadou gratuită! Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. During the occupation, Moselle was integrated into a Reichsgau named Westmark and Alsace was amalgamated with Baden. This is a beautiful example of Rigobert Bonne's 1771 decorative map of the French winemaking regions of Alsace and Lorraine. From an ethnic perspective, the transfer involved people who for the most part spoke Alemannic German dialects. Alsace-Lorraine had a land area of 14,496 km2 (5,597 sq mi). 4.". About 15,000 Alsatians and Lorrainers served in the German Navy. In relation to its special legal status, since its reversion to France following World War I, the territory has been referred to administratively as Alsace-Moselle (Alsatian: 's Elsàss-Mosel). News concours SEO. Preț valabil exclusiv online! France long sought to attain and then preserve what it considered to be its "natural boundaries", which were the Pyrenees to the southwest, the Alps to the southeast, and the Rhine River to the northeast. but on the Colmar prefecture building, the name of Belfort can be seen as a sous-prefecture. Booking.com, being established in 1996, is longtime Europe’s leader in online hotel reservations. [note 3] Some ethnic Germans in the region cooperated in the persecution as a way to demonstrate German patriotism. The annexed area consisted of the northern part of Lorraine, along with Alsace. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Alsace-Lorraine for Kids. German authorities became increasingly worried about renewed French nationalism. „Alsace, Lorraine ” în librăriile ... Turism si calatorii, Carte straina. Historically, the area was at the centre of Charlemagne’s Frankish empire in the 9th century and later became part of the Germanys of the Holy Roman Empire, remaining a German territory under various sovereignties up to the Thirty Years’ War. The Reichsland governor stated in February 1918: "Sympathies towards France and repulsion for Germans have penetrated to a frightening depth the petty bourgeoisie and the peasantry". From a military perspective, by early 1870s standards, shifting the frontier away from the Rhine would give the Germans a strategic buffer against feared future French attacks. Primary schooling in Alsace-Lorraine, 1870–1918.". This comprised about one third of the population of Alsace and Moselle, or about 600,000 residents. The regions of Alsace and Lorraine in the north east of France are perfect partners and share a taste for a genial outlook on life. Only the département of Meurthe changed its name and became Meurthe-et-Moselle after the border changes. Early in World War II, the collapse of France in 1940 was followed by the second German annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, which was again returned to France in 1945. We Germans who know Germany and France know better what is good for the Alsatians than the unfortunates themselves. Death of young men in the German army (1914–1918); +0.76% population growth per year during 1921–1936. carte alsace lorraine. Carte murale d'Alsace et de Lorraine . "[7] The Saverne Affair (usually known in English-language accounts as the Zabern Affair), in which abusive and oppressive behaviour by the military towards the population of the town of Saverne led to protests not just in Alsace but in other regions, put a severe strain on the relationship between the people of Alsace-Lorraine and the rest of the German Empire. Alsace-Lorraine, German Elsass-Lothringen, area comprising the present French départements of Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin, and Moselle. Evacuees were allowed to return in July 1940. The département Meurthe-et-Moselle was maintained even after France recovered Alsace-Lorraine in 1919. German nationalism on the other hand, which in its 19th century form originated as a reaction against the French occupation of large areas of Germany under Napoleon, sought to unify all the German-speaking populations of the former Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation into a single nation-state. Prohibiting the speaking of French in public further increased the exasperation of some of the natives, who were long accustomed to mixing their conversation with French language (see code-switching); still, the use even of one word, as innocent as "bonjour", could incur a fine. In this chaotic situation, Alsace-Lorraine's Landtag proclaimed itself the supreme authority of the land with the name of Nationalrat, the Soviet of Strasbourg claimed the foundation of a Republic of Alsace-Lorraine, while SPD Reichstag representative for Colmar, Jacques Peirotes, announced the establishment of the French rule, urging Paris to send troops quickly.[14]. Université de Strasbourg. Upon occupying certain villages, veterans of the 1870 conflict were sought out and arrested by the French army.[9]. Auteur du texte IMPRIMERIES RÉUNIES DE STRASBOURG (Strasbourg. Alsace hotels: low rates, no booking fees, no cancellation fees. [citation needed]. A woman at the market, who probably was unaware that ", One of the famous case was the desertion from all the Alsatian soldiers from their German battalion on the eve of the Verdun offensive to warn the French army from the imminent attack. While the soviet councils disbanded themselves with the departure of the German troops between November 11 and 17,[15] the arrival of the French Army stabilized the situation: French troops put the region under occupatio bellica and entered Strasbourg on November 21. Find tours through Alsace and Lorraine. This would only change with the First World War in 1914. [note 4]. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east of the Vosges Mountains. As various German dialects were spoken by most of the population of Alsace and Moselle (northern Lorraine), these regions were viewed by German nationalists to be rightfully part of hoped-for united Germany in the future. The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (German: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen; Alsatian: 's Rìchslànd Elsàss-Lothrìnga; Moselle Franconian/Luxembourgish: D'Räichland Elsass-Loutrengen) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. FVp: Progressive People's Party. Ultimately, 100,000 Alsatians and 30,000 Mosellans were enrolled, many of them to fight on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Red Army. I am Claudio, and it is my pleasure to accompany you as you experience the historic cities of France. Corrections? In the general revolutionary atmosphere of the expiring German Empire, Marxist councils of workers and soldiers (Soldaten und Arbeiterräte) formed in Mulhouse, in Colmar and Strasbourg in November 1918, in parallel to other such bodies set up in Germany, in imitation of the Russian equivalent soviets. Jacques Fortier, « La chute de l'Empire ». Un peu de géographie sur L’Aslace-Lorraine Ancienne carte Alsace-Lorraine – ©CC0 Domaine public L’Alsace. It was divided in three districts (Bezirke in German): The largest urban areas in Alsace-Lorraine at the 1910 census were: The modern history of Alsace-Lorraine was largely influenced by the rivalry between French and German nationalism. For that purpose, the population was divided in four categories: A (French citizens before 1870), B (descendants of such French citizens), C (citizens of Allied or neutral states) and D (enemy aliens - Germans). [note 2] In 1900, 11.6% of the population of Alsace-Lorraine spoke French as their first language (11.0% in 1905, 10.9% in 1910). [note 1]. Get information on Alsace-Lorraine Travel Guide - Expert Picks for your Vacation hotels, restaurants, entertainment, shopping, sightseeing, and activities. By Bas-Rhin). (Today, the region is called "Bas Rhin" [Lower Rhine] in France.) Taste authentic French wine and cheese in the mountains then visit historic sites in Strasbourg, Colmar, Largarde and many more. Until the Franco-Prussian War, the French had maintained a long-standing desire to establish their entire eastern frontier on the Rhine, and thus they were viewed by most 19th century Germans as an aggressive people.