On 3 July 1988, 290 people were killed when an Iran Air Airbus A300 was shot down over the strait by the United States Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes (CG-49) when it was wrongly identified as a jet fighter. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta told troops in Texas that the United States would not tolerate Iran's closing of the strait. "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". In May 1993, Iran enacted a comprehensive law on maritime areas, several provisions of which conflict with UNCLOS provisions, including a requirement that warships, submarines, and nuclear-powered ships obtain permission before exercising innocent passage through Iran's territorial waters.The United States does not recognize any of the claims by Oman and Iran and has contested each of them. "It was shore-to-shore", said one U.S. official describing the launch, who like the others requested anonymity to discuss sensitive information. Iranian Army chief Ataollah Salehi said the United States had moved an aircraft carrier out of the Persian Gulf because of Iran's naval exercises, and Iran would take action if the ship returned. [14] There were no injuries, and no oil leaked from the tanker. It followed President Trump’s open endorsement, during his recent visit to the archipelago, of Mr Abe's willingness … In the article, Iran's strategy beats the materially superior US armed forces. Le détroit d’Ormuz, zone sous hautes tensions. Although not all countries have ratified the convention,[8] most countries, including the U.S.,[9] accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In brief". "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In Brief". Le détroit d'Ormuz, passage stratégique sous haute tension Vendredi 21 Juin 2019 - Par seo. [21] A U.S. Fifth Fleet spokeswoman said in response that the Fleet was "always ready to counter malevolent actions", whilst Admiral Habibollah Sayyari of the Iranian navy claimed that cutting off oil shipments would be "easy". [citation needed] [65] In 2010, Iran was estimated to have at least 2,000 moored and drifting contact mines from Soviet, Western and Iranian sources. [62] These capabilities are meant to prevent advanced navies or other opponents to operate in the Strait and the Persian Gulf, and would be of particular concern to the U.S.[63] In 2016, it was assessed that Iran’s military strength was weak, even compared to regional rivals. La nouvelle a immédiatement entraîné un bond de 4% des cours du brut. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. Ne pas oublier que les USA sont auto-producteur de 80% de leur consommation de pétrole, ils sont plus gros producteur que l Arabie Saoudite et seront autosuffisants dans quelques années. [55] In a later issue, however, the journal published a response which questioned some key assumptions and suggested a much shorter timeline for re-opening. Les tensions dans le détroit d’Ormuz ne devraient pas nous surprendre. International Security, 2009, p. 190-198. Le 12 août 2012, il entre en collision avec le pétrolier japonais MV Otowasan dans le détroit d'Ormuz. États-Unis/Iran : nouvelles tensions dans le détroit d'Ormuz Depuis jeudi 13 juin et l'attaque de deux pétroliers, les tensions sont vives dans le golfe d'Oman. The assumptions and results were controversial. However, Iran’s anti-access/area-denial capabilities are filled with operational difficulties, and the use of these tactics would prompt a military response from the U.S. Pham, J. Peter. Long de 63 km et large de 40 km, … On 18 April 1988, the U.S. Navy waged a one-day battle against Iranian forces in and around the strait. [27] The British Government however have said that this move has been long-planned, as Daring will replace another Armilla patrol frigate. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". On 8 January 2007, the nuclear submarine USS Newport News, traveling submerged, struck MV Mogamigawa, a 300,000-ton Japanese-flagged very large crude tanker, south of the strait. When the ship's master declined, one of the Iranian craft fired shots across the bridge of Maersk Tigris. Ravivées en mai 2018 par le retrait américain de l’accord international sur le nucléaire et le rétablissement de lourdes sanctions, les tensions se sont récemment intensifiées avec des actes de sabotage et des attaques contre des pétroliers dans la région du Golfe en mai et en juin, imputées par Washington à Téhéran – qui a cependant démenti. If they commit such a stupidity, Tel Aviv and U.S. shipping in the Persian Gulf will be Iran's first targets and they will be burned."[17]. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. [44] The spokesman for Iran's Guardian Council, Abbas Ali Kadkhodaei, was quoted as describing the seizure as a "reciprocal action." bottom-moored contact mines; moored and bottom-influence mines; drifting mines and remotely controlled mines. Le détroit d’Ormuz reste la voie de navigation quasi exclusive reliant les producteurs d’hydrocarbures du Moyen-Orient (Arabie saoudite, Koweït, Qatar, Emirats arabes unis, Irak et Iran) aux marchés d’Asie, d’Europe et d’Amérique du nord. "Iran's Military Capability: The Structure and Strength of Forces". [42] Baqeri is also quoted for stating "If our oil does not pass, the oil of others shall not pass the Strait of Hormuz either". This site is on a small island on the peak of Musandam Governorate. Citing looming American sanctions after the U.S withdrew from the JCPOA deal earlier in the year. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 2019, p. 7-24. Naval Projection and the Strait of Hormuz". Le détroit d'Ormuz (en arabe : مضيق هرمز / Maḍīq Hurmuz ; en persan : تنگه هرمز / Tange-ye Hormoz) est un détroit reliant le golfe Persique au golfe d'Oman qui doit son nom à l'île iranienne Ormuz [1], située au sud-est de Bandar Abbas.Les pays frontaliers sont l'Iran au nord, le sultanat d'Oman (extrémité de la pointe sur la photo) et les Émirats arabes unis au sud (péninsule arabique). | The captain complied and proceeded into Iranian waters near Larak Island. Un quart du commerce mondial de gaz naturel liquéfié passe également par Ormuz. En 2018, environ 21 millions de barils de brut y circulaient quotidiennement, selon l’Agence américaine de l’Energie (EIA). A series of naval stand-offs between Iranian speedboats and U.S. warships in the Strait of Hormuz occurred in December 2007 and January 2008. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. La présence de nombreuses îles – dont celle d’Ormuz qui a donné son nom au détroit – et la faible profondeur des eaux territoriales iraniennes, les obligent à emprunter, à l’entrée comme à la sortie, deux chenaux très étroits – de deux milles nautiques (3,7 km) chaque, séparés par une zone tampon de même largeur –, mais suffisants pour permettre le passage … Une possibilité serait de commencer par le détroit d’Ormuz et d’entamer un dialogue avec tous les acteurs de cette région. According to the officials, the anti-ship Fateh-110 Mod 3 flew over 100 miles on a flight path over the Strait of Hormuz to a test range in the Iranian desert. [33] These ships operated in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea off the coast of Iran. Further pressure on Iranian currency was added by French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé who was quoted as calling for more "strict sanctions" and urged EU countries to follow the US in freezing Iranian central bank assets and imposing an embargo on oil exports. That afternoon, U.S. secretary of state Mike Pompeo issued a statement accusing Iran of the attacks. En avril 2015 encore, des bateaux des gardiens de la révolution avaient arraisonné dans le détroit d’Ormuz un porte-conteneurs des îles Marshall. It has a maximum capacity of around 2 million barrels per day, over three-quarters of the UAE's 2012 production rate. Sputnik France 33,279 views. [57][58], Captain John Kirby, a Pentagon spokesman, was quoted in a December 2011 Reuters article: "Efforts to increase tension in that part of the world are unhelpful and counter-productive. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. [24], The U.S. Navy spokesman Commander Bill Speaks quickly responded that deployment of U.S. military assets would continue as has been the custom stating: "The U.S. Navy operates under international maritime conventions to maintain a constant state of high vigilance in order to ensure the continued, safe flow of maritime traffic in waterways critical to global commerce. [39], In August 2018, Iran test-fired a ballistic missile for the first time in 2018. [19], On 20 March 2009, United States Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Hartford collided with the San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock USS New Orleans in the strait. Daring, which is the lead ship of her class is one of the "most advanced warships" in the world, and will undertake its first mission in the Persian Gulf. Le 18 juillet, Donald Trump affirme qu'un navire américain situé dans le détroit d'Ormuz, l'USS Boxer, a détruit un drone iranien qui s'approchait dangereusement de lui. Escalada de tensión en el estrecho de Ormuz: Irán intercepta una aeronave 'espía' y EEUU le acusa de derribar uno de sus drones info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز‎ ‎ Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Ce travail s'appuie sur les revenus complémentaires de la publicité et de l'abonnement. [63], • A significant fleet of small boats and manpower available, which can be used to manoeuvre around larger vessels in swarming (military) tactics. Pham, J. Peter. [67] This is why the U.S relies on a substantial navy and air-force presence, which secures the traffic through the Strait, and are prepared to counter Iranian attempts to blockade it. [citation needed] Pressure on prices reflect a combination of uncertainty driven further by China's recent response – reducing oil January 2012 purchases from Iran by 50% compared to those made in 2011. It will have a capacity of 1.65 million barrels per day. L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. En juillet 1988, un Airbus A300 de la compagnie nationale Iran Air, assurant la liaison entre Bandar Abbas et Dubaï, avait été abattu par deux missiles d’une frégate américaine qui patrouillait dans le détroit : 290 personnes avaient été tuées. It is striking to note that one of the tankers targeted was Japanese, and precisely took place as the Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Abe, was visiting Tehran. The opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities.[63]. Aljazeera. [30] The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response. [64] The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran have a number of these capabilities available, and in short reach of the Strait. Plus de 500 navires avaient été détruits ou endommagés. The Navy's regional commander, Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, said the Iranians had "neither anti-ship missiles nor torpedoes" and he "wouldn't characterize the posture of the US 5th Fleet as afraid of these small boats".[15]. Depuis l’arrivée du président Trump au pouvoir, la tension y est à son comble. (1) A full closure of the Strait, which is an immense threat to global oil markets, and would likely result in a significant rise in oil prices. The coastal state is limited in its powers to prevent passage: 1) if threat or actual use of force against its sovereignty, its territorial integrity, or its political independence; or 2) the vessel in any other way violates the principles of international law such as embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.[61]. [41], Aljazeera quoted Major-General Mohammad Baqeri of the Iranian Armed Forces, stating "We are not after closing the Strait of Hormuz but if the hostility of the enemies increases, we will be able to do so". The US Navy sent aircraft and a destroyer, USS Farragut, to monitor the situation. Même si c’était exagéré, cela avait un sens à l’époque. "[29], The Iranian Foreign Ministry confirmed on 16 January 2012 that it has received a letter from the United States concerning the Strait of Hormuz, "via three different channels." The report stated that more than 85% of these crude oil exports went to Asian markets, with Japan, India, South Korea and China the largest destinations. Entre l'Iran et les États-Unis, la guerre des nerfs se poursuit 01:38. Il est particulièrement vulnérable en raison de sa faible largeur, 50 kilomètres environ, et de sa profondeur, qui n’excède pas 60 mètres. Oct 6, 2017 - USS Thorn (DD-988) Spruance-class destroyer named for Lieutenant Jonathan Thorn, (1779-1811). Again, this action would be a risk to energy-security, and the steady flow of oil through the strait. Il est l’une des zones stratégiques les plus fébriles de la planète. Le pétrole rend le détroit d’Ormuz indispensable à l’économie mondiale. Pour les pays consommateurs, il paraît difficile de trouver une alternative, en volume comme en qualité, aux bruts extraits de la région du Golfe. Les gardiens de la révolution, l’armée idéologique iranienne, contrôlent les opérations navales dans le Golfe. The United States and the Middle East". U.S. forces sank one frigate, one gunboat, and up to six armed speedboats, as well as seriously damaging a second frigate. Tensions between the United States and Iran have been at their height since an American surveillance drone was shot down last week by Iranian forces. In April 1959 Iran altered the legal status of the strait by expanding its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) and declaring that it would recognize only transit by innocent passage through the newly expanded area. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". Atta Kenare, AFP . Gresh, Geoffrey. Vice Admiral Kevin Cosgriff, commander of the U.S. 5th Fleet stationed in Bahrain across the Persian Gulf from Iran, warned that such Iranian action would be considered an act of war, and the U.S. would not allow Iran to hold hostage nearly a third of the world's oil supply. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. It is widely acknowledged,[weasel words] that even a partial closure of the Strait would wreak havoc on the global oil markets and pose a severe threat to energy security. O'Neil, Williamd D; Talmadge, Caitlin. Le contenu de ce site est le fruit du travail de l'ensemble d'une rédaction qui oeuvre chaque jour à vous apporter une information de qualité, fiable, complète, et d'une équipe web qui vous propose des services innovants. Military and diplomatic officials still expected a strike as of 7 p.m. Thursday in retaliation for Iran shooting down an unmanned American drone. Ould Abdelaziz a expliqué que la Mauritanie avait rompu, il y quelques mois, ses relations diplomatiques avec l’Emirat, avant de les rétablir, à cause des nombreux intérêts économiques en jeu. ( Comme pour les armes chimiques fabriqués par les Irakiens). In the 10th–17th centuries AD, the Kingdom of Ormus, which seems to have given the strait its name, was located here.