Menée presque exclusivement sur le territoire du Saint Empire et en grande partie sur le dos des populations civiles, la guerre de Trente Ans allait emporter un tiers de sa population, d’où la place centrale qu’elle a longtemps occupé dans la mémoire collective allemande, devenu le spectre de la guerre, avant que la dernière ne prenne en quelque sorte sa place. Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, was preparing to restart hostilities, which required securing the Spanish Road. [27], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary. La mémoire collective et la littérature en conservent la souvenir, de Simplicissimus à Mère Courage. Previously, many had overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances; they were now understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular. This threatened other Protestant rulers within the Empire, including Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. Les trois premières s’achèvent sur un succès du camp impérial et catholique, ce qui engage dans le conflit, à chaque fois, un nouvel acteur pour soutenir le camp protestant. À la fin de la guerre de Trente Ans (en 1648, dix-sept ans plus tard), la ville ne compte plus que quelques centaines d'habitants. Pour les catholiques de l'époque, elle était la manifestation de la colère divine. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. Ferdinand paid Wallenstein by letting him confiscate estates, extort ransoms from towns, and allowing his men to plunder the lands they passed through, regardless of whether they belonged to allies or opponents. La guerre de Trente ans (1618-1648) fut le plus grand et le plus important des conflits qui ont marqué l’Europe moderne. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. [61], With Swedish-occupied Stralsund providing a bridgehead, in June 1630 nearly 18,000 Swedish troops landed in the Duchy of Pomerania. [129], Bautzen is besieged by Saxon troops, 1620 by Matthäus Merian, Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder,April 1631, Death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lützen,6 November 1632, The capture of Rheinfelden by the troops of the Duke of Feria,1633, Unsuccessful Swedish-Transylvanian siege of Brno, 1645, 1618–1648 multi-state war in Central Europe, Phase II; France joins the war 1635 to 1648. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=995360779, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. Peace of Westphalia [90] Combined with the diversion of Imperial resources caused by Swedish intervention in 1630, this led to the Treaty of Cherasco in June 1631. Catholic League (1618–1635), The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648; estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [88], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Le 20 mai 1631, le comte de Pappenheim et le comte de Tilly s'emparent de la ville. Ferdinand still resisted signing, but after France gained a crushing victory over Spain at Lens in August, and with Swedish troops attacking Prague, he finally did so on 24 October 1648. Massacres, famines, pestes déciment plus de la moitié de la population, et c'est une Alsace misérable qu'en des clauses obscures le traité de … When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. Prolongement des guerres de religion, la guerre de Trente Ans apporta l’Alsace au royaume de France. Une guerre, à l'époque où la Lorraine était un duché indépendant de la France . With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. After tense negotiations with Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, in the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne Richelieu agreed to provide additional subsidies, and declared war on Spain in May, beginning the 1635 to 1659 Franco-Spanish War. Cette guerre semée d'atrocités et de massacres en tous genres a été inaugurée en 1618 par une obscure querelle entre les protestants de Bohême et Matthias, empereur d'Allemagne et roi de Bohême, par ailleurs catholique. [33], Spanish involvement inevitably drew in the Dutch, and potentially France, although the strongly Catholic Louis XIII faced his own Protestant rebels at home and refused to support them elsewhere. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. [55] Von Arnim was forced to lift the siege on 4 August, but three weeks later, Christian suffered another defeat at Wolgast. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years. Spanish Empire Il s'agit d'un des plus importants massacres de la guerre de Trente Ans tant par l'étendue des pertes humaines que par la cruauté de la tuerie. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. Comme ville protestante et ville hanséatique, Magdebourg, aujourd'hui capitale de la Saxe-Anhalt, est assiégée par l'armée impériale de novembre 1630 jusqu'au 10 mai 1631. L'instabilité politique et religieuse du Saint Empire romain germanique est à l'origine du conflit : pour résister aux progrès de la Réforme catholique, les princes protestants, dont certains ont adhéré au calvinisme, confession non reconnue par la paix d'Augsbourg (1555), se regroupent en une Union évangélique(1608). This influential work was later credited with ending the practice in Germany, and eventually throughout Europe. [126], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. [59], As ever, Richelieu's policy was to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'. [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. [116], The breakdown of social order caused by the war was in some ways more significant and longer lasting than the immediate damage. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. Des 30 000 habitants (ce qui caractérise une ville majeure pour l'époque), seuls 5 000 survivent. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. [64] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. Gustave Adolphe qui s'était déclaré protecteur de la cité envoya un de ses officiers, Dietrich von Falkenburg prendre le commandement de la garnison. In some … More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. La guerre de Trente ans Marie-Noëlle Faure Ellipses, 2019, 327 p. ... Des massacres de populations massives s’ensuivent ou aucun être humain n’est épargné. [78], Richelieu died in 1642, and was replaced as chief minister by Cardinal Mazarin, followed on 14 May 1643 by the death of Louis XIII, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV as heir. La ville de Magdebourg était placée depuis novembre 1630 sous le blocus du comte de Pappenheim. Includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Spanish Italy. Brandenburg-Prussia (1631–1635)[note 1] [131], Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. [101] It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. La guerre de trente ans . This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. Les actes de guerre et de pillage durent jusqu'au 24 mai. [79] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. The first period from 1618 to 1635 was a struggle within the Holy Roman Empire, fought between Emperor Ferdinand II and his internal opponents, with external powers playing a supportive role. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. Opposant les Habsbourg d’Autriche et d’Espagne aux puissances européennes, Danemark, Suède, France, ce conflit majeur de l’Europe moderne a déchiré les états allemands impériaux entre eux. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. [96], Externally, the treaties formally acknowledged the independence of the Dutch Republic and the Swiss Confederacy, effectively autonomous since 1499. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. [108], Parish records show regular outbreaks of these were common for decades prior to 1618, but the conflict greatly accelerated their spread. Parce que cette histoire d’un conflit qui s’est passé il y a 350 ans et plus, nous renvoie à de l’actualité. In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. [106], The war has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. This seemed confirmed when Tilly's Catholic League army occupied Halberstadt in early 1625. The conflict can be split into two main parts. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 16 avril 2020 à 14:10. Depuis trente ans, la guerre refuse de desserrer ses griffes sur Gomet Usta, un vétéran azerbaïdjanais habitant à quelques centaines de mètres du front. Estimates of the total number of military and civilian deaths which resulted from it range from 4.5 to 8 million, the vast majority of the deaths resulted from disease or starvation. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. On estime de 6 à 8 millions le nombre des Allemands morts au cours de ces trente années de violences et de massacres. [129], Arguably, France gained more from the Thirty Years' War than any other power; by 1648, most of Richelieu's objectives had been achieved. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. Lire aussi: Jeu perfide entre réalité et …

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