The Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law on 11 August 1919. [8] Debate continues as to whether this policy was without alternative: some argue that the Allies would not in any circumstances have allowed a devaluation of the Reichsmark, while others point to the Hoover Moratorium as a sign that the Allies understood that the situation had changed fundamentally and further German reparation payments were impossible. Hans Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, Band 4, 1. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never completely met its disarmament requirements and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations (by twice restructuring its debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan).[7]. The fall of the Munich Soviet Republic to these units, many of which were situated on the extreme right, resulted in the growth of far-right movements and organisations in Bavaria, including Organisation Consul, the Nazi Party, and societies of exiled Russian Monarchists. Hitler also learned that all past crippling Nazi debts were to be relieved by German big business. Ils apprennent à vivre avec elle mais n’y adhèrent pas. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded it formal (de jure) recognition, and the two mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. The party owed its huge increase to growing support from middle-class people, whose traditional parties were swallowed up by the Nazi Party. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919,[9] but this name only became mainstream after 1933. These states were gradually abolished under the Nazi regime via the Gleichschaltung process, whereby they were effectively replaced by Gaue. La République De Weimar, 1918-33 . La République de Weimar, proclamée novembre 9, 1918, était défaite et révolution sociale au beau milieu de militaires soutenues. [46] Health insurance coverage was extended to other categories of the population during the existence of the Weimar Republic, including seamen, people employed in the educational and social welfare sectors, and all primary dependents. Second, in April 1937, the city-state of Lübeck was formally incorporated into Prussia by the Greater Hamburg Act, apparently motivated by Hitler's personal dislike for the city. Influenced by the brief cultural explosion in the Soviet Union, German literature, cinema, theatre and musical works entered a phase of great creativity. Le 6 février 1919, trois mois après l'armistice qui a mis fin à la Grande Guerre (1914-1918), une Assemblée constituante allemande se réunit dans le théâtre de Weimar, la ville de Goethe et Schiller, illustres représentants de l'âme allemande ! By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak, tongue and claws in red colour. Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason, a minimum sentence for the charge. The Nazi party then supplanted the Social Democrats as the largest party in the Reichstag, although it did not gain a majority. The rest was goods such as coal and chemicals, or from assets like railway equipment. Despite the change in the form of government, the official name of the state remained the same as it had been during the German Empire. The greater blow to Germans however was that they were forced to give up the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. This date, dubbed by the Nazis as the Machtergreifung (seizure of power), is commonly seen as the beginning of Nazi Germany. Examples include the nationwide pig slaughter, Schweinemord, in 1915. The repression of an uprising of SPD supporters by the reactionary forces in the Freikorps on the instructions of the SPD ministers was to become a major source of conflict within the socialist movement and thus contributed to the weakening of the only group that could have withstood the Nazi movement. With the ascendance of the SS, the Reichswehr took a softer line about the Nazis, as the SS presented itself as elitist, respectable, orderly, and busy reforming and dominating the police rather than the army. According to the cliché, modern young women were Americanised, wearing makeup, short hair, smoking and breaking with traditional mores. Hitler used the provisions of the Enabling Act to pre-empt possible opposition to his dictatorship from other sources, in which he was mostly successful. Fritz-Helmut Wisch, Paul Martin and Marianne Martinson. [66] Meanwhile, Hitler's promised written guarantee to Monsignor Kaas was being typed up, it was asserted to Kaas, and thereby Kaas was persuaded to silently deliver the Centre bloc's votes for the Enabling Act anyway. Other foreign achievements were the evacuation of foreign troops from the Ruhr in 1925. [42] Under a governmental decree of 3 February 1919, the German government met the demand of the veterans' associations that all aid for the disabled and their dependents be taken over by the central government[43] (thus assuming responsibility for this assistance) and extended into peacetime the nationwide network of state and district welfare bureaus that had been set up during the war to coordinate social services for war widows and orphans. Thus, Ebert was able to institute elections for a provisional National Assembly that would be given the task of writing a democratic constitution for parliamentary government, marginalising the movement that called for a socialist republic. This also led to pay raises for workers and for businessmen who wanted to profit from it. On 15 November 1923, a new currency, the Rentenmark, was introduced at the rate of one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) Papiermark for one Rentenmark, an action known as redenomination. The Communist, Social Democrat and Catholic Centre votes stood firm. [clarification needed] As the Young Plan did not allow a devaluation of the Reichsmark, Brüning triggered a deflationary internal devaluation by forcing the economy to reduce prices, rents, salaries and wages by 20%. The major weakness in constitutional terms was the inherent instability of the coalitions, which often fell prior to elections. Nom donné au régime de l'Allemagne après la Première Guerre mondiale (1919-1933). This Act would, and did, lead Hitler and the NSDAP toward his goal of unfettered dictatorial powers.[61]. [37] Art and a new type of architecture taught at "Bauhaus" schools reflected the new ideas of the time, with artists such as George Grosz being fined for defaming the military and for blasphemy. Although technically in service of the republic, the army was predominantly officered by conservative reactionaries who were sympathetic to right-wing organisations. By 7 November, the revolution had reached Munich, resulting in King Ludwig III of Bavaria fleeing. From 1924 to 1929, the Republic enjoyed relative stability and prosperity. On 8 November 1923, the Kampfbund, in a pact with Erich Ludendorff, took over a meeting by Bavarian prime minister Gustav von Kahr at a beer hall in Munich. When American banks withdrew their line of credit to German companies, the onset of severe unemployment could not be abated by conventional economic measures. Since the republicans were not yet ready to take action, the Communists did not want to support the republic and the conservatives had shot their political bolt, Hitler and Hugenberg were certain to achieve power. République de Weimar Le maréchal Hindenburg Le maréchal Hindenburg. Offizieller Account der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar auf Instagramm Offizieller Account der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar auf Vimeo The Bauhaus-Universität Weimar uses Matomo for web analytics. The growing dependence on American finance was to prove fleeting, and Germany was one of the worst hit nations in the Great Depression. These strikes lasted eight months, further damaging both the economy and society. The highly publicised rhetoric of 1919 about paying for all the damages and all the veterans' benefits was irrelevant for the total, but it did determine how the recipients spent their share. The state was officially the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), and was also referred to as the German Republic (Deutsche Republik). Other rebellions were put down in March 1921 in Saxony and Hamburg. No single reason can explain the failure of the Weimar Republic. In the four years following the First World War, the situation for German civilians remained dire. As the Weimar Republic was very fragile in all its existence, the depression was devastating, and played a major role in the Nazi takeover. Once the economic situation had stabilised, Stresemann could begin putting a permanent currency in place, called the Rentenmark (October 1923), which again contributed to the growing level of international confidence in the Weimar Republic's economy. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm. Désireux de créer le système le plus démocratique qui soit, les constituants introduisent aussi le référendum d'initiative populaire mais aussi un mode de scrutin à la proportionnelle intégrale. Instead, the struggles induced by the First World War persisted for the decade following. Kaas is considered to have had a hand therefore in the drafting of the speech. Eyeing the Catholic Centre Party's 70 (plus 20 BVP) seats, Hitler refused their leader's demands for constitutional "concessions" (amounting to protection) and planned for dissolution of the Reichstag. The artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The 6 November 1932 elections yielded 33% for the Nazis,[60] two million voters fewer than in the previous election. Des milliers de professeurs, d’industriels, d’hommes politiques détestaient les nazis mais n’aimaient pas la République. Many ships were scuttled and submarines and dreadnoughts were prohibited. On 30 December, the split deepened when the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was formed out of a number of radical left-wing groups, including the left wing of the USPD and the Spartacus League group. [10] To the right of the spectrum, the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and were appalled to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. Former Chancellor Heinrich Brüning proclaimed that his Centre Party would resist any constitutional change and appealed to the President for an investigation of the Reichstag fire. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400. It went into effect the following day, 24 March. Chicago (Author-Date, 15th ed.) On 29 March 1930, after months of lobbying by General Kurt von Schleicher on behalf of the military, the finance expert Heinrich Brüning was appointed as Müller's successor by Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg. Most Germans thought the Treaty of Versailles was a punishing and degrading document because it forced them to surrender resource-rich areas and pay massive amounts of compensation. Such support would publicly signal a return to conservatism to curb the problems affecting the Weimar Republic, and that stability might be at hand. Led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD it sought to act as a provisional cabinet of ministers. A decree on 3 February 1919 removed the right of employers to acquire exemption for domestic servants and agricultural workers. La République de Weimar (1918 – 1933) Weimar est inséparable de ce qui lui donne naissance et de ce qui lui succédera. Although Hindenburg disliked Hugenberg and despised Hitler, he was no less a supporter of the sort of anti-democratic counter-revolution that the DNVP and NSDAP represented. In this time, the radical left-wing parties, including the USPD and KPD, were barely able to get themselves organised, leading to a solid majority of seats for the MSPD moderate forces. At that time, one U.S. dollar was equal to 4.2 Rentenmark. 22 kg per person per year was still less than half of the 52 kg statistic in 1913, before the onset of the war. Throughout the war German officials made rash decisions to combat the growing hunger of the nation, most of which were highly unsuccessful. The proclamation was issued by Karl Liebknecht, co-leader (with Rosa Luxemburg) of the communist Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a group of a few hundred supporters of the Russian revolution that had allied itself with the USPD in 1917. République de Weimar. The actual amount of reparations that Germany was obliged to pay out was not the 132 billion marks decided in the London Schedule of 1921 but rather the 50 billion marks stipulated in the A and B Bonds. No aircraft of any kind was allowed. Shortly after, France completely occupied the Rhineland, strictly controlling all important industrial areas. The rebellion caused great fear in the establishment and in the middle classes because of the Soviet-style aspirations of the councils. La fin de la République de Weimar. Cf. [citation needed], The treaty was signed June 28, 1919 and is easily divided into four categories: territorial issues, disarmament demands, reparations, and assignment of guilt. Between 1930 and 1932, Brüning tried to reform the Weimar Republic without a parliamentary majority, governing, when necessary, through the President's emergency decrees. He had also sought to break Germany's isolation after World War I through the 1922 Treaty of Rapallo with the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Likewise, American progressive architects were admired. They wanted a renewed Germany and a new organisation of German society. Only the tiny German Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont upheld the tradition and continued to use the German colours called Schwarz-Rot-Gold in German, (English: Black-Red-Gold) that had originated within a German-held state as early as 1778. In 1919, legislation provided for a maximum working 48-hour workweek, restrictions on night work, a half-holiday on Saturday, and a break of thirty-six hours of continuous rest during the week. Since Weimar politicians had been blamed for the Dolchstoß ("stab-in-the-back"), a widely believed theory that Germany's surrender in the First World War had been the unnecessary act of traitors, the popular legitimacy of the government was on shaky ground. Only the SPD had voted against the Act. The continuity of pain showed the Weimar authority in a negative light, and public opinion was one of the main sources behind its failure.[29]. Le 16 mai 1703, le tsar Pierre 1er le Grand fonde une nouvelle capitale sous le nom de Sankt-Petersburg (en allemand, la « ville de Saint-Pierre »). In the next five years, the central government, assured of the support of the Reichswehr, dealt severely with the occasional outbreaks of violence in Germany's large cities. Germany was particularly affected because it depended heavily on American loans. Gustav Noske, a self-appointed military expert in the MSPD, was sent to Kiel to prevent any further unrest and took on the task of controlling the mutinous sailors and their supporters in the Kiel barracks. The Weimar Republic was severely affected by the Great Depression. A l'époque de la République de Weimar, le cinéma allemand était mondialement renommé. The Weimar Republic , is an historical designation for the German federal state that existed from 1918 to 1933. In 1926, about 2 million Germans were unemployed, which rose to around 6 million in 1932. The 1920s German inflation started when Germany had no goods to trade. He did not even want their support for the bill. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charge and colours as those of the eagle of the Reich's coat of arms are to be used, but the tops of the feathers are directed outside.

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